Crazy dog disease

Learn about the veterinary topic of Canine Distemper (Hardpad Disease). Find specific details on this topic and related topics from the Merck Vet Manual.Mar 15, 2022 · Lyme disease is, unfortunately, a fairly common canine disease . Typical symptoms in dogs include: Fever Loss of appetite Reduced energy Lameness (can be shifting, intermittent, and recurring)... Jan 30, 2015 - Explore V Pierre's board "Vestibular Disease - dog" on Pinterest. See more ideas about dogs, pets, dog health.Aug 25, 2015 · Medical Causes of Canine Aggression. Aggression in dogs is defined as a threat of harmful behavior directed at another animal or person. It may involve snarling, growling, snapping, nipping, biting, or lunging. A dog may act aggressively for either behavioral or medical reasons, or a combination of both. Here are some of the medical conditions ... We often talk about dog diseases that are very common, and often, very curable. Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that is extremely rare in dogs, but can occur.The onset of this dog disease can happen almost overnight, and one of the most common symptoms of Lyme disease (like blastomycosis) is a sore foreleg. Lyme disease, however, will not involve weeping...May 04, 2018 · One of those is abnormal, irregular jerking eye movements known as nystagmus, while many dogs will also become disorientated or confused. A reluctance to stand or walk is common, and the dizziness will often lead to nausea or vomiting. It is a common neurological condition in dogs, with no predisposition to sex or breed. Disorientation, head tilt, and loss of balance are all common to an upset in the vestibular system. This system is responsible for maintaining and stabilizing the position of the head (which thereby gives the body stability), and the eyes during head movements. Aug 02, 2022 · Food allergies in dogs can lead to signs of allergic itch around the paws, face, armpits, and belly. Allergic dermatitis can make your dog uncomfortable. It also can lead to secondary health... Lyme disease, leptospirosis, and a type of kennel cough are bacterial diseases. These infections are not limited to dogs - all are found in other animal populations and rabies, Lyme...This page gives you a list of dog diseases and symptoms in alphabetical order for quick reference. Click on specific links to get more detailed information.Aug 25, 2015 · Hypothyroidism in Dogs All veterinarians are aware of hypothyroidism, a condition in which the thyroid gland produces less thyroid hormone than normal. Hypothyroidism can be suspected from overt signs, such as increased body weight, lethargy, hair loss, etc. Blood levels of thyroid hormone can confirm the diagnosis. Mad Cow Disease is the common term for Bovine Spongiform Encepholopathy (BSE), a progressive neurological disorder of cattle which can be transmitted to other species, including humans.Mar 07, 2022 · Canine cognitive dysfunction syndrome (CCD), or dog dementia, is a decline in mental function leading to altered behavior, confusion, change in personality, and other forms of mental decline. Due to the familiar symptoms present with CCD, this condition is commonly compared to Alzheimer’s or dementia in humans. Dogs are man's best friend, but we're now learning that they're also a doctor's best helper. The sensitivity of dogs' noses has found them roles in the armed forces, police, and hunting.The article is devoted to the analysis of respiratory diseases, its main types and reasons of their occurrence. Also general characteristics of some respiratory diseases, their frequency in children and...Jan 23, 2018 · Cushing’s Disease is a disease that affects the adrenal gland of a dog. When a dog has Cushing’s disease they will begin to produce an excessive amount of glucocorticoids. The result? Increased blood flow through the renal arteries and thus damage to the nephrons (more specifically the glomerulus of nephrons). Often times, excessive licking of the paws is due to one of three underlying causes: Atopy (the equivalent of hay fever in people) Food allergies Flea allergy dermatitis (often abbreviated “FAD”) Lumbosacral disease involves degeneration of the lumbosacral junction and/or compression of the Lumbosacral disease most frequently affects middle aged or older large breed dogs (e.g. German...It is a common neurological condition in dogs, with no predisposition to sex or breed. Disorientation, head tilt, and loss of balance are all common to an upset in the vestibular system. This system is responsible for maintaining and stabilizing the position of the head (which thereby gives the body stability), and the eyes during head movements. Often times, excessive licking of the paws is due to one of three underlying causes: Atopy (the equivalent of hay fever in people) Food allergies Flea allergy dermatitis (often abbreviated “FAD”) Read stories about Dog Disease on Medium. Discover smart, unique perspectives on Dog Disease and the topics that matter most to you.The onset of this dog disease can happen almost overnight, and one of the most common symptoms of Lyme disease (like blastomycosis) is a sore foreleg. Lyme disease, however, will not involve weeping...Jun 02, 2022 · Symptoms of Distemper include yellow-colored diarrhea, discharge from the eyes and nose, trouble breathing, weakness, neurologic signs and lethargy. Puppies may also have seizures or seem weaker or less coordinated than normal. 2 Unfortunately, Distemper is often fatal, and prompt veterinary care should be sought. 03 of 07. Mar 07, 2022 · Dog dementia involves the aging of the canine brain, and all the cognitive decline that comes along with that reality. CCD in dogs affects a dog’s memory and comprehension once the condition sets in, often worsening as time goes on. Dog dementia and Alzheimer’s have many traits in common, so comparing the two can often help owners ... "Yeah, I was accidentally bitten by a dog just now." Li Junao took the ointment and put it in his "Hehe ~~ That might be a wild dog! I have to find a rabies vaccine. Wild dogs are generally crazy!Introduction to diarrheal diseases. Shigellosis. Salmonellosis. Food poisoning (food-borne disease). Escherichia coli gastrointestinal infections. amish dog breed Often times, excessive licking of the paws is due to one of three underlying causes: Atopy (the equivalent of hay fever in people) Food allergies Flea allergy dermatitis (often abbreviated “FAD”) Crazy.Dog. Last online: ± 16 hours ago. Verified trusted seller. You will find the available purchasing options set by the seller for the domain name Crazy.Dog on the right side of this page.Rage syndrome. Rage syndrome, also known as sudden onset aggression or ( SOA) or avalanche of rage syndrome, is a rare but serious behavioural problem that has been reported most commonly in the English Springer Spaniel but also in a variety of other dog breeds. It is often misdiagnosed as it can be confused with other forms of aggression. disorder.Addison's disease in dogs is a hormonal disease. It can get complicated to explain, but my goal here is to Addison's disease in dogs is seen in Standard Poodles more so than in some other breeds.Mar 15, 2022 · Lyme disease is, unfortunately, a fairly common canine disease . Typical symptoms in dogs include: Fever Loss of appetite Reduced energy Lameness (can be shifting, intermittent, and recurring)... Aug 25, 2015 · Medical Causes of Canine Aggression. Aggression in dogs is defined as a threat of harmful behavior directed at another animal or person. It may involve snarling, growling, snapping, nipping, biting, or lunging. A dog may act aggressively for either behavioral or medical reasons, or a combination of both. Here are some of the medical conditions ... Dog bites can introduce dangerous bacteria into the body. This can cause serious and sometimes fatal infections to occur when left untreated. It’s very important to wash the wound as soon as you’re bitten and to use topical antibiotics, such as povidone iodine, in and around broken skin. What happens if a mad dog bites […] Health issues that can change your dog’s behavior include arthritis, hip dysplasia, luxating patellas, sore teeth, thyroid problems, epilepsy/seizures, ear infections, digestive issues, skin or environmental allergies, yeast infections, hearing loss, eyesight loss, and cancer. How do I get my dog to stop being crazy? Even saw one crazy pedo Daddy who stuck it up his daughter's pooper AT her school classroom bathroom! That takes balls. Props to that man.Doge is the nickname given to Kabosu, a Japanese Shiba Inu who rose to online fame in 2013 as a fictional character featured in image macros captioned with grammatically awkward phrases in the...Jun 02, 2022 · Parvovirus (commonly known as Parvo) most often affects young dogs that have not been vaccinated at all or have not completed their puppy vaccine series. Vaccination is the best way to prevent Parvo. Parvovirus is transmitted through dog-to-dog contact, infected feces, and contaminated surfaces in the environment. Chapter 1118: Wild dogs are generally crazy! dog! disease! "Hehe ~~ That might be a wild dog! I have to find a rabies vaccine. Wild dogs are generally crazy!Diabetes in dogs is a complex disease caused by either a lack of the hormone insulin or an inadequate response to insulin. After a dog eats, his digestive system breaks food into various components...Why Do Dogs Get Gum Disease? Blame bacteria for gum disease in people and in pets. Almost immediately after an animal eats, bacteria, along with food, saliva, and other particles, begin forming a...Disorientation, head tilt, and loss of balance are all common to an upset in the vestibular system. This system is responsible for maintaining and stabilizing the position of the head (which thereby gives the body stability), and the eyes during head movements. Vestibular disease will interfere with your dog’s entire sense of balance. “Canine parvovirus, or parvo, is a highly contagious and serious disease. It is caused by a virus that attacks the cells of the intestinal tract and bone marrow. It affects puppies, adult dogs, and wild canids such as foxes, wolves, and coyotes.” (view source) 9. Rabies. One of the scariest sounding diseases that dogs can get from foxes is ... is terre haute ghetto Kategori Disease A-Z. Tag Crazy, Disease, Dog, Rabies. Navigasi Tulisan.Crazy dog disease, dog crazy or rabies is a viral disease that causes acute brain inflammation in hot-blooded animals.Mar 07, 2022 · Canine cognitive dysfunction syndrome (CCD), or dog dementia, is a decline in mental function leading to altered behavior, confusion, change in personality, and other forms of mental decline. Due to the familiar symptoms present with CCD, this condition is commonly compared to Alzheimer’s or dementia in humans. Dec 17, 2020 · Signs and Symptoms of Canine Cushing’s Syndrome. The common symptoms of Cushing’s syndrome in dogs include: Increased thirst. Increased urination. Increased appetite. Hair loss and thinning of hair, especially on the back and abdomen. Pot-bellied appearance. Loss of muscle mass. Thin, delicate skin. They say the craze may be partially responsible for rises in chlamydia, HIV, syphilis and hepatitis. Disease rise. The NHS Health Promotion team covering the Medway area in Kent noticed that the...I am sure many UK dog owners and others alike are aware of a deadly disease that is spread by slugs and snails. Due to the wet summer's we have had in the UK over the last few years...Aug 25, 2015 · Medical Causes of Canine Aggression. Aggression in dogs is defined as a threat of harmful behavior directed at another animal or person. It may involve snarling, growling, snapping, nipping, biting, or lunging. A dog may act aggressively for either behavioral or medical reasons, or a combination of both. Here are some of the medical conditions ... "Yeah, I was accidentally bitten by a dog just now." Li Junao took the ointment and put it in his "Hehe ~~ That might be a wild dog! I have to find a rabies vaccine. Wild dogs are generally crazy!Jan 23, 2018 · 6 Possible Causes of Kidney Disease in Dogs. There may be many causes of kidney disease in dogs. Listed below are just some of the common causes of kidney disease in dogs. Cushing’s Disease is a disease that affects the adrenal gland of a dog. When a dog has Cushing’s disease they will begin to produce an excessive amount of glucocorticoids. Often times, excessive licking of the paws is due to one of three underlying causes: Atopy (the equivalent of hay fever in people) Food allergies Flea allergy dermatitis (often abbreviated “FAD”) Mar 15, 2022 · Typical symptoms in dogs include: Fever. Loss of appetite. Reduced energy. Lameness (can be shifting, intermittent, and recurring) Generalized stiffness, discomfort, or pain. Swelling of joints ... Many dogs have a combination of both. Seborrhea causes the skin to release a waxy, greasy substance that formulates in the ears and armpits and around the belly, elbows, and ankles. This greasy substance is very fatty and VERY smelly. It causes dogs to itch like crazy; often, the affected areas become crusty and bleed. They say the craze may be partially responsible for rises in chlamydia, HIV, syphilis and hepatitis. Disease rise. The NHS Health Promotion team covering the Medway area in Kent noticed that the...Keywords: dog; disorder of sex development; penile hypoplasia; rudimentary prepuce; SRY Disturbances in successive developmental stages result in congenital disorders collectively referred...Cushing's disease is an endocrine disorder of middle-aged and older dogs. It's the result of the overproduction of cortisol by the adrenal glands located on each kidney. Normally, your dog responds...Prions and prion diseases Chapter 42. Infectious diseases with specific lesions in oral cavity (for Bordetella bronchiseptica may cause so-called "kennel cough" in dogs. In rare cases it may be...Kind of crazy that the incidence of heart disease has gone up not down since the introduction of The Dog Father • 2 days ago. Somewhere over the past few decades, useless parents thought a pill could...This page gives you a list of dog diseases and symptoms in alphabetical order for quick reference. Click on specific links to get more detailed information.I am sure many UK dog owners and others alike are aware of a deadly disease that is spread by slugs and snails. Due to the wet summer's we have had in the UK over the last few years...Материалы проекта. CRAZY DOG RACE «Хвостатый Драйв».pptx.Working dogs, wild dogs, domestic dogs can all fall victim to this highly infectious disease. "To help prevent disease in dogs, dog owners should maintain an effective tick control program, avoid taking...Read stories about Dog Disease on Medium. Discover smart, unique perspectives on Dog Disease and the topics that matter most to you.Aug 25, 2015 · Medical Causes of Canine Aggression. Aggression in dogs is defined as a threat of harmful behavior directed at another animal or person. It may involve snarling, growling, snapping, nipping, biting, or lunging. A dog may act aggressively for either behavioral or medical reasons, or a combination of both. Here are some of the medical conditions ... Mar 07, 2022 · Dog dementia involves the aging of the canine brain, and all the cognitive decline that comes along with that reality. CCD in dogs affects a dog’s memory and comprehension once the condition sets in, often worsening as time goes on. Dog dementia and Alzheimer’s have many traits in common, so comparing the two can often help owners ... We often talk about dog diseases that are very common, and often, very curable. Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that is extremely rare in dogs, but can occur.Internal diseases, which include diseases of organs and systems and metabolic disorders. The main symptoms of dog diseases that need to be taken into account and reacted to by the owner are.Mar 07, 2022 · Canine cognitive dysfunction syndrome (CCD), or dog dementia, is a decline in mental function leading to altered behavior, confusion, change in personality, and other forms of mental decline. Due to the familiar symptoms present with CCD, this condition is commonly compared to Alzheimer’s or dementia in humans. Mental disorders in dogs are a real issue. Luckily, there are ways pet owners can spot symptoms and help treat common conditions like OCD, depression, & anxiety.Keywords: dog; disorder of sex development; penile hypoplasia; rudimentary prepuce; SRY Disturbances in successive developmental stages result in congenital disorders collectively referred...GIPHY is your top source for the best & newest GIFs & Animated Stickers online. Find everything from funny GIFs, reaction GIFs, unique GIFs and more.Aug 02, 2022 · Food allergies in dogs can lead to signs of allergic itch around the paws, face, armpits, and belly. Allergic dermatitis can make your dog uncomfortable. It also can lead to secondary health... Dec 17, 2020 · Signs and Symptoms of Canine Cushing’s Syndrome. The common symptoms of Cushing’s syndrome in dogs include: Increased thirst. Increased urination. Increased appetite. Hair loss and thinning of hair, especially on the back and abdomen. Pot-bellied appearance. Loss of muscle mass. Thin, delicate skin. Cushing's disease is an endocrine disorder of middle-aged and older dogs. It's the result of the overproduction of cortisol by the adrenal glands located on each kidney. Normally, your dog responds...Introduction to diarrheal diseases. Shigellosis. Salmonellosis. Food poisoning (food-borne disease). Escherichia coli gastrointestinal infections.Chronic kidney disease is a disease characterized by progressive damage and loss of function in the kidneys. It's estimated that chronic kidney disease affects about one in seven American adults.Working dogs, wild dogs, domestic dogs can all fall victim to this highly infectious disease. "To help prevent disease in dogs, dog owners should maintain an effective tick control program, avoid taking...Dog owners are being warned about a deadly disease, carried by ticks, that has been found in the UK for the first time. The outbreak of babesiosis is centred in Harlow, Essex, but there are fears that it will...Click to Follow crazydogsp. Crazy Dog Sp - Crazy Dog News. PESSOAL VISITEM MEU CANAL YOUTUBE E SE INSCREVAM CRAZY DOG NEWS!!.Prions and prion diseases Chapter 42. Infectious diseases with specific lesions in oral cavity (for Bordetella bronchiseptica may cause so-called "kennel cough" in dogs. In rare cases it may be...As the disease develops, dogs may have difficulty breathing and may have secretions coming out of However, Arce said dog owners shouldn't be worried. The disease has been around for nearly five...Dog bites can introduce dangerous bacteria into the body. This can cause serious and sometimes fatal infections to occur when left untreated. It’s very important to wash the wound as soon as you’re bitten and to use topical antibiotics, such as povidone iodine, in and around broken skin. What happens if a mad dog bites […] Doge is the nickname given to Kabosu, a Japanese Shiba Inu who rose to online fame in 2013 as a fictional character featured in image macros captioned with grammatically awkward phrases in the...Chapter 1118: Wild dogs are generally crazy! dog! disease! "Hehe ~~ That might be a wild dog! I have to find a rabies vaccine. Wild dogs are generally crazy!Health issues that can change your dog’s behavior include arthritis, hip dysplasia, luxating patellas, sore teeth, thyroid problems, epilepsy/seizures, ear infections, digestive issues, skin or environmental allergies, yeast infections, hearing loss, eyesight loss, and cancer. How do I get my dog to stop being crazy? Dog disease that can infect humans with fever, arthritis and heart swelling confirmed in Iowa. Canine brucellosis has been confirmed at a commercial breeding facility for small dogs in Marion County.There are hundreds of diseases in dogs, and all are not equally important. The causal agents of Mange in Dogs is an intrafollicular parasitic disease caused by several different species of mites, is...Материалы проекта. CRAZY DOG RACE «Хвостатый Драйв».pptx.It is a common neurological condition in dogs, with no predisposition to sex or breed. Disorientation, head tilt, and loss of balance are all common to an upset in the vestibular system. This system is responsible for maintaining and stabilizing the position of the head (which thereby gives the body stability), and the eyes during head movements. Oct 05, 2017 · Addison’s disease, blastomycosis, cancer, Cushing’s disease, diabetes, digestive problems (e.g. gastritis, ehrlichiosis, IBD), giardia, heart disease, kidney failure, Lyme disease, stomach ulcers, stomach cancer, worm infestations The article is devoted to the analysis of respiratory diseases, its main types and reasons of their occurrence. Also general characteristics of some respiratory diseases, their frequency in children and...The clinical assessment, treatment, and prevention of Lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, and babesiosis...With Atypical Cushing's Disease in dogs, the cortisol precursors end up stimulating production of This is why many dog's with atypical Cushing's Disease have elevated sex hormones, for example...Seborrhea causes the skin to release a waxy, greasy substance that formulates in the ears and armpits and around the belly, elbows, and ankles. This greasy substance is very fatty and VERY smelly. It causes dogs to itch like crazy; often, the affected areas become crusty and bleed. Jan 30, 2015 - Explore V Pierre's board "Vestibular Disease - dog" on Pinterest. See more ideas about dogs, pets, dog health.Obsessive Compulsive Dog-order? Frantic Westie has to carry out bizarre routine EVERY time he tries to climb upstairs. Share or comment on this article: Obsessive Compulsive Dog Disorder? e-mail.Jun 02, 2022 · Symptoms of Distemper include yellow-colored diarrhea, discharge from the eyes and nose, trouble breathing, weakness, neurologic signs and lethargy. Puppies may also have seizures or seem weaker or less coordinated than normal. 2 Unfortunately, Distemper is often fatal, and prompt veterinary care should be sought. 03 of 07. Oct 05, 2017 · Addison’s disease, blastomycosis, cancer, Cushing’s disease, diabetes, digestive problems (e.g. gastritis, ehrlichiosis, IBD), giardia, heart disease, kidney failure, Lyme disease, stomach ulcers, stomach cancer, worm infestations This page gives you a list of dog diseases and symptoms in alphabetical order for quick reference. Click on specific links to get more detailed information.Although dogs can pass germs to people, you are not likely to get sick from touching or owning dogs. To best protect yourself from getting sick, thoroughly wash your hands with running water and soap...Cushing's Disease (also known as "hyperadrenocorticism") is a disorder in which the adrenal gland This disease is one of the more common endocrine disorders, and usually strikes older dogs.Mar 15, 2022 · Typical symptoms in dogs include: Fever. Loss of appetite. Reduced energy. Lameness (can be shifting, intermittent, and recurring) Generalized stiffness, discomfort, or pain. Swelling of joints ... Nov 08, 2017 · Giardia infections (giardiasis) are a commonly diagnosed problem in puppies. They cause stinky diarrhea and are sometimes difficult to treat. Read on to learn everything you need to know about... missing persons grand rapids mi Rage syndrome. Rage syndrome, also known as sudden onset aggression or ( SOA) or avalanche of rage syndrome, is a rare but serious behavioural problem that has been reported most commonly in the English Springer Spaniel but also in a variety of other dog breeds. It is often misdiagnosed as it can be confused with other forms of aggression. Diabetes in dogs is a complex disease caused by either a lack of the hormone insulin or an inadequate response to insulin. After a dog eats, his digestive system breaks food into various components...Dog-mediated human rabies can be eliminated by tackling the disease at its source: infected dogs. Making people aware of how to avoid the bites of rabid dogs, to seek treatment when bitten and to...Mar 07, 2022 · Dog dementia involves the aging of the canine brain, and all the cognitive decline that comes along with that reality. CCD in dogs affects a dog’s memory and comprehension once the condition sets in, often worsening as time goes on. Dog dementia and Alzheimer’s have many traits in common, so comparing the two can often help owners ... Which Dog Food for Kidney Disease Should You Pick? Further Reading: Solutions for Other Health Best Dry Dog Food for Adult Dogs with Kidney Disease. Royal Canin Renal Support Veterinary Diet...Working dogs, wild dogs, domestic dogs can all fall victim to this highly infectious disease. "To help prevent disease in dogs, dog owners should maintain an effective tick control program, avoid taking...Mange in dogs is caused by two types of microscopic mites, one of which is highly contagious. Learn how it's treated and what you can do to keep it from spreading.The diet usually recommended for dogs with liver disease should include enough calories to maintain a normal weight. Protein restriction is usually required only for dogs that are at risk of developing...Dog bites can introduce dangerous bacteria into the body. This can cause serious and sometimes fatal infections to occur when left untreated. It’s very important to wash the wound as soon as you’re bitten and to use topical antibiotics, such as povidone iodine, in and around broken skin. What happens if a mad dog bites […] Many dogs have a combination of both. Seborrhea causes the skin to release a waxy, greasy substance that formulates in the ears and armpits and around the belly, elbows, and ankles. This greasy substance is very fatty and VERY smelly. It causes dogs to itch like crazy; often, the affected areas become crusty and bleed. Paget disease is a localized disorder of bone remodeling that typically begins with excessive bone resorption followed by an increase in bone formation. This osteoclastic overactivity followed by...Canine pituitary dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH), also known as Cushing's disease, is a common endocrine disorder in older dogs. This disorder is caused by a pituitary adenoma (PA)...Dogs are comparably commonly diagnosed with kidney-related disease (KD), but neither incidence nor mortality rates of KD have previously been reported. In paper I, incidence and mortality rates of KD...A dog can get the disease quite easily, through a touch, but for a person it will be safe. Dogs, like humans, can have many different diseases, some of which are considered infectious and can be...Dec 17, 2020 · Cushing’s disease is a specific type of hyperadrenocorticism caused by a tumor in the pituitary gland resulting in overproduction of ACTH. It's called pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH). This is the most common cause of Cushing’s syndrome in dogs, so the term Cushing’s disease is frequently used interchangeably with Cushing’s syndrome. 23 dogs in norway has died because they bled from the inside and started puking blood and having fatal diarrhea. It has taken 24 hours between the first symptom and and the death itself.Aug 25, 2015 · Medical Causes of Canine Aggression. Aggression in dogs is defined as a threat of harmful behavior directed at another animal or person. It may involve snarling, growling, snapping, nipping, biting, or lunging. A dog may act aggressively for either behavioral or medical reasons, or a combination of both. Here are some of the medical conditions ... Jun 02, 2022 · Parvovirus (commonly known as Parvo) most often affects young dogs that have not been vaccinated at all or have not completed their puppy vaccine series. Vaccination is the best way to prevent Parvo. Parvovirus is transmitted through dog-to-dog contact, infected feces, and contaminated surfaces in the environment. Like humans, dogs can get plenty of diseases, especially from other dogs. While many of the diseases listed here aren't as prevalent as they once were, they are still around your dog may be...Mar 15, 2022 · Typical symptoms in dogs include: Fever. Loss of appetite. Reduced energy. Lameness (can be shifting, intermittent, and recurring) Generalized stiffness, discomfort, or pain. Swelling of joints ... Animals & Pets dance dancing dog look back food cereal oof damn ha lol viral trend viral trend instagram meme memes watch watching tv show explore shorts xd lul lolsus nikifox.Read stories about Dog Disease on Medium. Discover smart, unique perspectives on Dog Disease and the topics that matter most to you.Oct 05, 2017 · Addison’s disease, blastomycosis, cancer, Cushing’s disease, diabetes, digestive problems (e.g. gastritis, ehrlichiosis, IBD), giardia, heart disease, kidney failure, Lyme disease, stomach ulcers, stomach cancer, worm infestations Read latest update of Don't Want to Trick Me, Princess. - A hub of fabulous Chinese novels, where you can read, translate and create.Dogs are man's best friend, but we're now learning that they're also a doctor's best helper. The sensitivity of dogs' noses has found them roles in the armed forces, police, and hunting.The article is devoted to the analysis of respiratory diseases, its main types and reasons of their occurrence. Also general characteristics of some respiratory diseases, their frequency in children and...Dog Disease - Animal Treatment. DevApp's. Contains ads. Download Dog Diseases App now on your smartphones and get to know about all the necessary information regarding dogs' diseases!Historically, dogs have never been raised as meat animals on a large scale, but instead have served as man's helper and companion. There are a number of reasons for this: the high cost of feeding dogs a...If your dog has canine cognitive dysfunction, these stages can help you understand the progression of the disease. The research may be able to indicate how much time your dog has.Crazy dog disease kan op elke leeftijd voorkomen, maar komt meestal voor bij kinderen jonger dan Wat zijn mijn behandelingsopties voor hondsdolheid (mad dog disease)? Als u wordt gebeten door...Immunosuppressed dogs (dogs whose immune systems are weakened because of disease or certain medications) are much more likely to become infected with these fungi and develop disease.Well, it has something to do with herpes, shingles, auto-immune blistering disease and the fact that Covid-19 vaccination greatly damages the natural immune system.Dec 17, 2020 · Cushing’s disease is a specific type of hyperadrenocorticism caused by a tumor in the pituitary gland resulting in overproduction of ACTH. It's called pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH). This is the most common cause of Cushing’s syndrome in dogs, so the term Cushing’s disease is frequently used interchangeably with Cushing’s syndrome. Mar 15, 2022 · Lyme disease is, unfortunately, a fairly common canine disease . Typical symptoms in dogs include: Fever Loss of appetite Reduced energy Lameness (can be shifting, intermittent, and recurring)... Nov 08, 2017 · Giardia infections (giardiasis) are a commonly diagnosed problem in puppies. They cause stinky diarrhea and are sometimes difficult to treat. Read on to learn everything you need to know about... Crazy, Off-kilter . A word you use when you can't think of the proper terminology .If your dog has canine cognitive dysfunction, these stages can help you understand the progression of the disease. The research may be able to indicate how much time your dog has.Years later, during a home robbery, her crazed family reveal what they are...Dogs are man's best friend, but we're now learning that they're also a doctor's best helper. The sensitivity of dogs' noses has found them roles in the armed forces, police, and hunting.Mar 15, 2022 · Typical symptoms in dogs include: Fever. Loss of appetite. Reduced energy. Lameness (can be shifting, intermittent, and recurring) Generalized stiffness, discomfort, or pain. Swelling of joints ... Aug 25, 2015 · Medical Causes of Canine Aggression. Aggression in dogs is defined as a threat of harmful behavior directed at another animal or person. It may involve snarling, growling, snapping, nipping, biting, or lunging. A dog may act aggressively for either behavioral or medical reasons, or a combination of both. Here are some of the medical conditions ... Jan 23, 2018 · 6 Possible Causes of Kidney Disease in Dogs. There may be many causes of kidney disease in dogs. Listed below are just some of the common causes of kidney disease in dogs. Cushing’s Disease is a disease that affects the adrenal gland of a dog. When a dog has Cushing’s disease they will begin to produce an excessive amount of glucocorticoids. Crazy.Dog. Last online: ± 16 hours ago. Verified trusted seller. You will find the available purchasing options set by the seller for the domain name Crazy.Dog on the right side of this page.Rage syndrome. Rage syndrome, also known as sudden onset aggression or ( SOA) or avalanche of rage syndrome, is a rare but serious behavioural problem that has been reported most commonly in the English Springer Spaniel but also in a variety of other dog breeds. It is often misdiagnosed as it can be confused with other forms of aggression. Jan 23, 2018 · 6 Possible Causes of Kidney Disease in Dogs. There may be many causes of kidney disease in dogs. Listed below are just some of the common causes of kidney disease in dogs. Cushing’s Disease is a disease that affects the adrenal gland of a dog. When a dog has Cushing’s disease they will begin to produce an excessive amount of glucocorticoids. Mad Cow Disease is the common term for Bovine Spongiform Encepholopathy (BSE), a progressive neurological disorder of cattle which can be transmitted to other species, including humans.May 04, 2018 · One of those is abnormal, irregular jerking eye movements known as nystagmus, while many dogs will also become disorientated or confused. A reluctance to stand or walk is common, and the dizziness will often lead to nausea or vomiting. Ver Reservoir Dogs en HBO España.Animals & Pets dance dancing dog look back food cereal oof damn ha lol viral trend viral trend instagram meme memes watch watching tv show explore shorts xd lul lolsus nikifox.This is "A girl and her dog SEXY. XXX" by tuandeptrai on Vimeo, the home for high quality videos and the people who love them.dogs are canine distemper, in-fectious canine hepatitis, lep-tospirosis, parvovirus infec-tion, kennel cough, and rabies. Other infectious dis-eases that affect dogs do not occur as frequently.Jan 23, 2018 · 6 Possible Causes of Kidney Disease in Dogs. There may be many causes of kidney disease in dogs. Listed below are just some of the common causes of kidney disease in dogs. Cushing’s Disease is a disease that affects the adrenal gland of a dog. When a dog has Cushing’s disease they will begin to produce an excessive amount of glucocorticoids. Lyme disease, leptospirosis, and a type of kennel cough are bacterial diseases. These infections are not limited to dogs - all are found in other animal populations and rabies, Lyme...disease dish dismiss disorder display distance divert divide divorce dizzy doctor document dog doll dolphin domain donate donkey donor door dose double dove draft dragon drama drastic draw dream...I am sure many UK dog owners and others alike are aware of a deadly disease that is spread by slugs and snails. Due to the wet summer's we have had in the UK over the last few years..."Yeah, I was accidentally bitten by a dog just now." Li Junao took the ointment and put it in his "Hehe ~~ That might be a wild dog! I have to find a rabies vaccine. Wild dogs are generally crazy!Mar 07, 2022 · Canine cognitive dysfunction syndrome (CCD), or dog dementia, is a decline in mental function leading to altered behavior, confusion, change in personality, and other forms of mental decline. Due to the familiar symptoms present with CCD, this condition is commonly compared to Alzheimer’s or dementia in humans. Mental disorders in dogs are a real issue. Luckily, there are ways pet owners can spot symptoms and help treat common conditions like OCD, depression, & anxiety.The diet usually recommended for dogs with liver disease should include enough calories to maintain a normal weight. Protein restriction is usually required only for dogs that are at risk of developing...Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs Find methods information, sources, references or conduct a literature review on DOG DISEASES.The onset of this dog disease can happen almost overnight, and one of the most common symptoms of Lyme disease (like blastomycosis) is a sore foreleg. Lyme disease, however, will not involve weeping...It is a common neurological condition in dogs, with no predisposition to sex or breed. Disorientation, head tilt, and loss of balance are all common to an upset in the vestibular system. This system is responsible for maintaining and stabilizing the position of the head (which thereby gives the body stability), and the eyes during head movements. 6r80 torque converter shudder Chronic kidney disease is a disease characterized by progressive damage and loss of function in the kidneys. It's estimated that chronic kidney disease affects about one in seven American adults.Mar 15, 2022 · Typical symptoms in dogs include: Fever. Loss of appetite. Reduced energy. Lameness (can be shifting, intermittent, and recurring) Generalized stiffness, discomfort, or pain. Swelling of joints ... Often times, excessive licking of the paws is due to one of three underlying causes: Atopy (the equivalent of hay fever in people) Food allergies Flea allergy dermatitis (often abbreviated “FAD”) Dec 17, 2020 · Cushing’s disease is a specific type of hyperadrenocorticism caused by a tumor in the pituitary gland resulting in overproduction of ACTH. It's called pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH). This is the most common cause of Cushing’s syndrome in dogs, so the term Cushing’s disease is frequently used interchangeably with Cushing’s syndrome. Dogs with CPV show signs of disease within three to seven days. The symptoms include lethargy, fever, vomiting, and bloody diarrhea. Because the intestinal lining is damaged by CPV...Mar 07, 2022 · Canine cognitive dysfunction syndrome (CCD), or dog dementia, is a decline in mental function leading to altered behavior, confusion, change in personality, and other forms of mental decline. Due to the familiar symptoms present with CCD, this condition is commonly compared to Alzheimer’s or dementia in humans. Diabetes in dogs is a complex disease caused by either a lack of the hormone insulin or an inadequate response to insulin. After a dog eats, his digestive system breaks food into various components...Jan 23, 2018 · Cushing’s Disease is a disease that affects the adrenal gland of a dog. When a dog has Cushing’s disease they will begin to produce an excessive amount of glucocorticoids. The result? Increased blood flow through the renal arteries and thus damage to the nephrons (more specifically the glomerulus of nephrons). Lyme disease, leptospirosis, and a type of kennel cough are bacterial diseases. These infections are not limited to dogs - all are found in other animal populations and rabies, Lyme...Dog disease that can infect humans with fever, arthritis and heart swelling confirmed in Iowa. Canine brucellosis has been confirmed at a commercial breeding facility for small dogs in Marion County.Nov 03, 2016 · Dogs with alimentary lymphoma, which affects the intestines, may present with vomiting, abdominal pain, anorexia, diarrhea, and weight loss. Symptoms: Mediastinal Lymphoma Dogs with mediastinal... Rage syndrome, also known as sudden onset aggression or ( SOA) or avalanche of rage syndrome, is a rare but serious behavioural problem that has been reported most commonly in the English Springer Spaniel but also in a variety of other dog breeds. It is often misdiagnosed as it can be confused with other forms of aggression. rachel mcadams wiki english Signs of Cancer in Dogs. Cancer can be the most difficult of the common dog diseases on our list to detect. If identified in time, though, the same advanced treatment options humans have, like surgery...Jankovic J. Parkinson's disease: Clinical features and diagnosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2008;79(4):368-76.Addison's disease in dogs is a hormonal disease. It can get complicated to explain, but my goal here is to Addison's disease in dogs is seen in Standard Poodles more so than in some other breeds.Mar 15, 2022 · Typical symptoms in dogs include: Fever. Loss of appetite. Reduced energy. Lameness (can be shifting, intermittent, and recurring) Generalized stiffness, discomfort, or pain. Swelling of joints ... Detailed descriptions of common canine diseases and treatments seen at the Long Beach Animal This page has an alphabetical list of all the dog diseases and treatments on our web site in the...Aug 25, 2015 · Hypothyroidism in Dogs All veterinarians are aware of hypothyroidism, a condition in which the thyroid gland produces less thyroid hormone than normal. Hypothyroidism can be suspected from overt signs, such as increased body weight, lethargy, hair loss, etc. Blood levels of thyroid hormone can confirm the diagnosis. Lick granuloma also known as acral lick dermatitis, is a skin disorder in dogs resulting from an urge to lick the lower... Pemphigus is an uncommon autoimmune skin disease. The most common form in dogs is pemphigus foliaceus, which manifests... Sebaceous adenitis is an uncommon autoimmune skin ... Jan 30, 2015 - Explore V Pierre's board "Vestibular Disease - dog" on Pinterest. See more ideas about dogs, pets, dog health.I am sure many UK dog owners and others alike are aware of a deadly disease that is spread by slugs and snails. Due to the wet summer's we have had in the UK over the last few years...Mar 15, 2022 · Lyme disease is, unfortunately, a fairly common canine disease . Typical symptoms in dogs include: Fever Loss of appetite Reduced energy Lameness (can be shifting, intermittent, and recurring)... Read latest update of Don't Want to Trick Me, Princess. - A hub of fabulous Chinese novels, where you can read, translate and create."crazy dog disease." Investigations at Baker Lake in the winter of 1947-48. definitely prove that ra v b ies was present in the dog population at this point.Internal diseases, which include diseases of organs and systems and metabolic disorders. The main symptoms of dog diseases that need to be taken into account and reacted to by the owner are.Is Pet Insurance for Dogs Worth It? Treating dog diseases and injuries can be costly, but you want "I've seen claims that have crazy dollar amounts attached to them," says Jenna Mahan, a registered...Dogs get this disease when they are bitten by an infected animal such as a fox or raccoon, or when a wound or a scratch is exposed to infected saliva. It also includes mucous membranes.Rage syndrome. Rage syndrome, also known as sudden onset aggression or ( SOA) or avalanche of rage syndrome, is a rare but serious behavioural problem that has been reported most commonly in the English Springer Spaniel but also in a variety of other dog breeds. It is often misdiagnosed as it can be confused with other forms of aggression. Rage syndrome. Rage syndrome, also known as sudden onset aggression or ( SOA) or avalanche of rage syndrome, is a rare but serious behavioural problem that has been reported most commonly in the English Springer Spaniel but also in a variety of other dog breeds. It is often misdiagnosed as it can be confused with other forms of aggression. Aug 25, 2015 · Medical Causes of Canine Aggression. Aggression in dogs is defined as a threat of harmful behavior directed at another animal or person. It may involve snarling, growling, snapping, nipping, biting, or lunging. A dog may act aggressively for either behavioral or medical reasons, or a combination of both. Here are some of the medical conditions ... An unchecked dog population plays an important role, because dogs serve as hosts to these ticks in each life stage. One of the oldest described infectious diseases, "mad crazy dog disease" (as it is...Besides rabies, there is also coenurosis, another dog disease that closely resembles rabies. The Maasai people even have a name for it: ‘Ormilo’. Coenurosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the... The article is devoted to the analysis of respiratory diseases, its main types and reasons of their occurrence. Also general characteristics of some respiratory diseases, their frequency in children and...Introduction to diarrheal diseases. Shigellosis. Salmonellosis. Food poisoning (food-borne disease). Escherichia coli gastrointestinal infections.Internal diseases, which include diseases of organs and systems and metabolic disorders. The main symptoms of dog diseases that need to be taken into account and reacted to by the owner are.Rage syndrome, also known as sudden onset aggression or ( SOA) or avalanche of rage syndrome, is a rare but serious behavioural problem that has been reported most commonly in the English Springer Spaniel but also in a variety of other dog breeds. It is often misdiagnosed as it can be confused with other forms of aggression. Mar 15, 2022 · Typical symptoms in dogs include: Fever. Loss of appetite. Reduced energy. Lameness (can be shifting, intermittent, and recurring) Generalized stiffness, discomfort, or pain. Swelling of joints ... Prions and prion diseases Chapter 42. Infectious diseases with specific lesions in oral cavity (for Bordetella bronchiseptica may cause so-called "kennel cough" in dogs. In rare cases it may be...A dog can get the disease quite easily, through a touch, but for a person it will be safe. Dogs, like humans, can have many different diseases, some of which are considered infectious and can be...This list of dog diseases is a selection of diseases and other conditions found in the dog. Some of these diseases are unique to dogs or closely related species, while others are found in other animals, including humans. Not all of the articles listed here contain information specific to dogs.The disease is extremely contagious and can even be deadly. "That would just be crazy. It's important for your neighbors, for kids, other pets, local wildlife…you have to have your dog vaccinated...Crazy dog disease, dog crazy or rabies is a viral disease that causes acute brain inflammation in hot-blooded animals.Mad Cow Disease is the common term for Bovine Spongiform Encepholopathy (BSE), a progressive neurological disorder of cattle which can be transmitted to other species, including humans.Why Do Dogs Get Gum Disease? Blame bacteria for gum disease in people and in pets. Almost immediately after an animal eats, bacteria, along with food, saliva, and other particles, begin forming a...There are hundreds of diseases in dogs, and all are not equally important. The causal agents of Mange in Dogs is an intrafollicular parasitic disease caused by several different species of mites, is..."Yeah, I was accidentally bitten by a dog just now." Li Junao took the ointment and put it in his "Hehe ~~ That might be a wild dog! I have to find a rabies vaccine. Wild dogs are generally crazy!Many dogs have a combination of both. Seborrhea causes the skin to release a waxy, greasy substance that formulates in the ears and armpits and around the belly, elbows, and ankles. This greasy substance is very fatty and VERY smelly. It causes dogs to itch like crazy; often, the affected areas become crusty and bleed. Aug 25, 2015 · Medical Causes of Canine Aggression. Aggression in dogs is defined as a threat of harmful behavior directed at another animal or person. It may involve snarling, growling, snapping, nipping, biting, or lunging. A dog may act aggressively for either behavioral or medical reasons, or a combination of both. Here are some of the medical conditions ... Mar 07, 2022 · Canine cognitive dysfunction syndrome (CCD), or dog dementia, is a decline in mental function leading to altered behavior, confusion, change in personality, and other forms of mental decline. Due to the familiar symptoms present with CCD, this condition is commonly compared to Alzheimer’s or dementia in humans. Rage syndrome, also known as sudden onset aggression or ( SOA) or avalanche of rage syndrome, is a rare but serious behavioural problem that has been reported most commonly in the English Springer Spaniel but also in a variety of other dog breeds. It is often misdiagnosed as it can be confused with other forms of aggression. A dog can get the disease quite easily, through a touch, but for a person it will be safe. Dogs, like humans, can have many different diseases, some of which are considered infectious and can be...Aug 25, 2015 · Medical Causes of Canine Aggression. Aggression in dogs is defined as a threat of harmful behavior directed at another animal or person. It may involve snarling, growling, snapping, nipping, biting, or lunging. A dog may act aggressively for either behavioral or medical reasons, or a combination of both. Here are some of the medical conditions ... Jan 23, 2018 · Cushing’s Disease is a disease that affects the adrenal gland of a dog. When a dog has Cushing’s disease they will begin to produce an excessive amount of glucocorticoids. The result? Increased blood flow through the renal arteries and thus damage to the nephrons (more specifically the glomerulus of nephrons). Aug 25, 2015 · Medical Causes of Canine Aggression. Aggression in dogs is defined as a threat of harmful behavior directed at another animal or person. It may involve snarling, growling, snapping, nipping, biting, or lunging. A dog may act aggressively for either behavioral or medical reasons, or a combination of both. Here are some of the medical conditions ... Click to Follow crazydogsp. Crazy Dog Sp - Crazy Dog News. PESSOAL VISITEM MEU CANAL YOUTUBE E SE INSCREVAM CRAZY DOG NEWS!!.Like humans, dogs can get plenty of diseases, especially from other dogs. While many of the diseases listed here aren't as prevalent as they once were, they are still around your dog may be...The disease is extremely contagious and can even be deadly. "That would just be crazy. It's important for your neighbors, for kids, other pets, local wildlife…you have to have your dog vaccinated...Like humans, dogs can get plenty of diseases, especially from other dogs. While many of the diseases listed here aren't as prevalent as they once were, they are still around your dog may be...An unchecked dog population plays an important role, because dogs serve as hosts to these ticks in each life stage. One of the oldest described infectious diseases, "mad crazy dog disease" (as it is...Dec 17, 2020 · Cushing’s disease is a specific type of hyperadrenocorticism caused by a tumor in the pituitary gland resulting in overproduction of ACTH. It's called pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH). This is the most common cause of Cushing’s syndrome in dogs, so the term Cushing’s disease is frequently used interchangeably with Cushing’s syndrome. Sep 29, 2021 · The illness is caused by mycoplasma bacteria, which cannot be vaccinated against, Pierson Pet Hospital Veterinarian Angela Lusty told MLive-The Flint Journal. It causes dogs to become ill and... Jan 23, 2018 · 6 Possible Causes of Kidney Disease in Dogs. There may be many causes of kidney disease in dogs. Listed below are just some of the common causes of kidney disease in dogs. Cushing’s Disease is a disease that affects the adrenal gland of a dog. When a dog has Cushing’s disease they will begin to produce an excessive amount of glucocorticoids. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), commonly known as mad cow disease, is an incurable and inevitably fatal neurodegenerative disease of cattle. Symptoms include abnormal behavior, trouble walking, and weight loss.Dec 17, 2020 · Signs and Symptoms of Canine Cushing’s Syndrome. The common symptoms of Cushing’s syndrome in dogs include: Increased thirst. Increased urination. Increased appetite. Hair loss and thinning of hair, especially on the back and abdomen. Pot-bellied appearance. Loss of muscle mass. Thin, delicate skin. Jan 23, 2018 · 6 Possible Causes of Kidney Disease in Dogs. There may be many causes of kidney disease in dogs. Listed below are just some of the common causes of kidney disease in dogs. Cushing’s Disease is a disease that affects the adrenal gland of a dog. When a dog has Cushing’s disease they will begin to produce an excessive amount of glucocorticoids. Mar 07, 2022 · Dog dementia involves the aging of the canine brain, and all the cognitive decline that comes along with that reality. CCD in dogs affects a dog’s memory and comprehension once the condition sets in, often worsening as time goes on. Dog dementia and Alzheimer’s have many traits in common, so comparing the two can often help owners ... The clinical assessment, treatment, and prevention of Lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, and babesiosis...Kategori Disease A-Z. Tag Crazy, Disease, Dog, Rabies. Navigasi Tulisan."crazy dog disease." Investigations at Baker Lake in the winter of 1947-48. definitely prove that ra v b ies was present in the dog population at this point.Signs of disease in the dog crazy cat. Symptoms or signs that look almost the same in dogs WE NEED TO DO TO OUR PETS (dogs, cats, monkeys) ARE NOT CRAZY DOG DISEASE.Click to Follow crazydogsp. Crazy Dog Sp - Crazy Dog News. PESSOAL VISITEM MEU CANAL YOUTUBE E SE INSCREVAM CRAZY DOG NEWS!!.Ver Reservoir Dogs en HBO España.While some deadly diseases in dogs are inherited or unpreventable, your dog could avoid others As the disease progresses to the second stage, some dogs may suffer neurological problems like head...Keywords: dog; disorder of sex development; penile hypoplasia; rudimentary prepuce; SRY Disturbances in successive developmental stages result in congenital disorders collectively referred...Crazy dog disease isn't copied by skin layers it belongs to our people. Remember that animal saliva can be loaded with crazy dog disease a week before the animal has a disease sign.Immunosuppressed dogs (dogs whose immune systems are weakened because of disease or certain medications) are much more likely to become infected with these fungi and develop disease.Aug 25, 2015 · Medical Causes of Canine Aggression. Aggression in dogs is defined as a threat of harmful behavior directed at another animal or person. It may involve snarling, growling, snapping, nipping, biting, or lunging. A dog may act aggressively for either behavioral or medical reasons, or a combination of both. Here are some of the medical conditions ... Jan 30, 2015 - Explore V Pierre's board "Vestibular Disease - dog" on Pinterest. See more ideas about dogs, pets, dog health.Rage syndrome, also known as sudden onset aggression or ( SOA) or avalanche of rage syndrome, is a rare but serious behavioural problem that has been reported most commonly in the English Springer Spaniel but also in a variety of other dog breeds. It is often misdiagnosed as it can be confused with other forms of aggression. Here's a test to tell whether you're are becoming a crazy dog parent or not. If 5 of these describe yourself, then the answer is yes. We're the artists behind the creative studio Last Lemon.Many dogs have a combination of both. Seborrhea causes the skin to release a waxy, greasy substance that formulates in the ears and armpits and around the belly, elbows, and ankles. This greasy substance is very fatty and VERY smelly. It causes dogs to itch like crazy; often, the affected areas become crusty and bleed. Obsessive Compulsive Dog-order? Frantic Westie has to carry out bizarre routine EVERY time he tries to climb upstairs. Share or comment on this article: Obsessive Compulsive Dog Disorder? e-mail.Dog bites can introduce dangerous bacteria into the body. This can cause serious and sometimes fatal infections to occur when left untreated. It’s very important to wash the wound as soon as you’re bitten and to use topical antibiotics, such as povidone iodine, in and around broken skin. What happens if a mad dog bites […] What is a canine neurological disorder? Canine neurological disorders are illnesses that stem from A condition often diagnosed in older dogs is Old Dog Vestibular Disease. It can affect the balance... thompson and center armsxa